This essay Transplants and Diabetes has a total of 431 words and 3 pages.
Transplants and Diabetes
Three Toronto scientists have developed an organ transplant
procedure that could, among its many benefits, reverse
The procedure was developed by Bernard Leibel, Julio Martin
and Walter Zingg at the University of Toronto and the
Hospital for Sick Children.
The story of their work began in 1978, when they delved into
research which had never before been tried. They wanted to
determine if the success rate of organ transplants would
increase if the recipient was injected with minute amounts of
organ tissue prior to the transplant. The intention was to adapt
the recipient to the transplanted tissue and thereby raise the
threshold of rejection.
In the case of the diabetes experiment, this meant injecting
rats with pancreatic tissue before transplanting islets of
Langerhans, small clusters of cells scattered throughout the
pancreas which produce insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.
In their first experiment, outbred Wistar rats were injected
with increasing amounts of minced pancreas from unrelated
donor rats for one year while a control group was left
untreated. Then both the treated and control groups received
injections of approximately 500-800 islets of Langerhans
from unrelated donors. Of the five treated animals, two
became clinically and biochemically permanently normal. Six
months later, Martin examined the cured rats and found
intact, functioning islets secreting all of their hormones,
including insulin. None of the controls were cured.
Encouraged by their first results, Leibel, Martin, and Zingg
decided to repeat the experiment with rats with much
stronger immune barriers (higher levels of rejection). Seven
rats out of nine were cured. "We set up a protocol and
worked patiently with small numbers," says Leibel, "but the
results are indisputable."
In addition to reversing diabetes, there are two other
benefits to the pre-treatment procedure, according to the
scientists. The first is that the pancreas produces all the
other hormones of a normal pancreas, not just insulin. The
second benefit is that the transplant recipient doesn\'t have
to take immunosuppressive drugs, which are so toxic for
diabetics. At present, diabetics who receive a transplanted
pancreas must take such drugs for life.
The scientists eventual goal is a human trial, but they
admit it will be years before such a study is conducted. The
obvious benefit for diabetics, if human trials prove
successful, would be a return to a normal life without
dietary restrictions or insulin shots. But to Liebel, the
most important reason to continue research is to eliminate
the debilitating, degenerative diseases such as kidney, eye
and heart failure that eventually plague the aging diabetic.
Topics Related to Transplants and Diabetes
Diabetes, Transplantation medicine, Eli Lilly and Company, Insulin, Pancreatic islets, Pancreas, Organ transplantation, Diabetes mellitus, Islet cell transplantation, Edmonton protocol
Essays Related to Transplants and Diabetes
Sir Frederick Grant Banting (1891-1941)Sir Frederick Grant Banting (1891-1941) Life Description Sir Frederick Grant Banting was a Canadian physician, physiologist, and Nobel winner in 1923 for the discovery of the hormone insulin, used in treating diabetes. Early Life Banting was born November 14, 1891, on a farm near Alliston, Ontario. The death of his friend made him having the desire to be a doctor. However, his father was a devoutly religious man, and hoped that Frederick would become minister. After he graduated from high school
Emily Murphy: A Great CanadianEmily Murphy: A Great Canadian It was only in this century that women in Canada had equal rights as men. But this would never happen if women themselves would not start fighting for their rights. One of these women was Emily Murphy and her greatest achievement, Emily proved that women are \'persons\' and therefore they have the right to work in any political office. Her life and political career lead her to this achievement. Emily Gowan Ferguson was born on March 14, 1868 in a village of Cooksto
Transplants and DiabetesTransplants and Diabetes Three Toronto scientists have developed an organ transplant procedure that could, among its many benefits, reverse diabetes. The procedure was developed by Bernard Leibel, Julio Martin and Walter Zingg at the University of Toronto and the Hospital for Sick Children. The story of their work began in 1978, when they delved into research which had never before been tried. They wanted to determine if the success rate of organ transplants would increase if the recipient was i
Angina PectorisAngina Pectoris CONTENTS 3 Introduction 4 The Human Heart 5 Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease 5 Heart Attack 5 Sudden Death 5 Angina 6 Angina Pectoris 6 Signs and Symptoms 7 Different Forms of Angina 8 Causes of Angina 9 Atherosclerosis 9 Plaque 10 Lipoproteins 10 Lipoproteins and Atheroma 11 Risk Factors 11 Family History 11 Diabetes 11 Hypertension 11 Cholesterol 12 Smoking 12 Multiple Risk Factors 13 Diagnosis 14 Drug Treatment 14 Nitrates 14 Beta-blockers 15 Calcium antagonists 15 Other Med
Insulin-Dependent DiabetesInsulin-Dependent Diabetes ******REMINDER****** The information contained in the Rare Disease Database is provided for educational purposes only. It should not be used for diagnostic or treatment purposes. If you wish to obtain more information about this disorder, please contact your personal physician and/or the agencies listed in the Resources section of this report. Insulin-dependent Diabetes is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough insulin and is, therefore, unable to conve
Multiple Personalities: Do They Really Exist?Multiple Personalities: Do They Really Exist? Multiple personalities- the existence of two or more distinct personalities or personality states within one person. In actuality, up to ten or even more personalities can coexist within one person, some documented cases have revealed over one hundred. But, the question remains, what exactly is the multiple personality disorder (MPD)? First I will look at what exactly the disorder is. It is, in simple terms, many complex personalities all inhabiting
Dangers of Anabolic SteroidsDangers of Anabolic Steroids In the past three decades, steroids has been becoming a serious problem more than ever in the athletic field. Steroids are anabolic drug to build growth hormones that include the androgens (male sex hormones) principally testosterone and estrogen and progestogens (female sex hormones). Steroids were first developed for medical purposes. They\'re used in controlling inflammation, strengthening weakened hearts, preventing conception, and alleviating symptoms of arthr
SteroidsSteroids In the past three decades, steroids has been becoming a serious problem more than ever in the athletic field. Steroids are anabolic drug to build growth hormones that include the androgens (male sex hormones) principally testosterone and estrogen and progestogens (female sex hormones). Steroids were first developed for medical purposes. They\'re used in controlling inflammation, strengthening weakened hearts, preventing conception, and alleviating symptoms of arthritis and asthma. Unf
EthologyEthology The biological study of animal behavior is called Ethology. All behavior is a reaction to a stimulus. John B. Watson influenced animal behavior in the twentieth century. He published a book in 1924 called Behaviorism. Jakob von Uexkull and O. Heinroth started a school that taught about animal behavior. There are two categories of animal behavior: genetically determined or environmentally determined. Animal behavior is the different ways that animals do different things, such as hunt
Nutritional FactsNutritional Facts The first nutritional fact most Americans learn is that iron builds strong and healthy bodies.1 The beef lobby, cereal manufacturers, bread makers, and drug companies have bombarded the public with iron being the cure-all for fatigue and iron-poor blood. People have been mislead by drug companies pushing iron supplements and by old-fashioned ideas about iron, the magical nutrient of strength. Even the cartoons of the past pushed iron as the secret ingredient in Popeye\'s sp
Animal RightsAnimal Rights As Doctor Zola-Morgan stated in a speech to animal right activists, I\'ve seen the impact of the animal rights movement. I believe this is an attack on science of the worst kind. If we allow it to prevail it will take us back to the dark ages. Too much of the public has come to think of medical researchers as tormenters rather than healers. The good is overlooked and the bad is exploited. Although many people think that animal research is morally wrong, animal research should c
AlcoholismAlcoholism Alcoholism is a disease of epidemic proportions, affecting 9.3 to 10 million Americans, and many professionals believe the figures are closer to 20 million (Weddle and Wishon). Alcoholism is a physiological or physiological dependence on alcohol characterized by the alcoholic’s inability to control the start or termination of his drinking(Encyclopedia Britannica 210). It consists of frequent and recurring consumption of alcohol to an extent that causes continued harm to the drinker