The Cold War


Introduction

When World War II in Europe finally came to an end on May 7, 1945, a
new war was just beginning. The Cold War: denoting the open yet restricted
rivalry that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union and
their respective allies, a war fought on political, economic, and
propaganda fronts, with limited recourse to weapons, largely because of
fear of a nuclear holocaust.1 This term, The Cold War, was first used by
presidential advisor Bernard Baruch during a congressional debate in 1947.
Intelligence operations dominating this war have been conducted by the
Soviet State Security Service (KGB) and the Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA), representing the two power blocs, East and West respectively, that
arose from the aftermath of World War II. Both have conducted a variety of
operations from large scale military intervention and subversion to covert
spying and surveillance missions. They have known success and failure. The
Bay of Pigs debacle was soon followed by Kennedy\'s ft handling of the Cuban
missile crisis. The decisions he made were helped immeasurably by
intelligence gathered from reconnaissance photos of the high altitude plane
U-2. In understanding these agencies today I will show you how these
agencies came about, discuss past and present operations, and talk about
some of their tools of the trade.


Origin of the CIA and KGB

The CIA was a direct result of American intelligence operations during
World War II. President Franklin D. Roosevelt recognized the need to
coordinate intelligence to protect the interests of the United States. In
1941, he appointed William J. Donovan to the head of the Office of
Strategic Services (OSS) with headquarters in London. Four departments made
up the OSS: Support, Secretariat, Planning, and Overseas Missions. Each of
these departments directed an array of sections known as \'operation
groups\'. This organization had fallen into the disfavor of many involved in
the federal administration at this time. This included the director of the
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), J. Edgar Hoover, who did not like
competition from a rival intelligence organization. With the death of
Roosevelt in April of 1945, the OSS was disbanded under Truman and
departments were either relocated or completely dissolved. Soviet
intelligence began with the formation of the Cheka, secret police, under
Feliks Dzerzhinsky at the time of the revolution. By 1946, this agency had
evolved into the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), and the Ministry of
State Security (MGB) both ruled by Lavrenti Beria. This man was undoubtedly
the most powerful man in the Soviet Union with a vast empire of prison
camps, and informants to crush any traces of dissent. Of considerable
importance to Beria was the race for the atomic bomb. The Soviet Union and
the United States both plundered the German V-2 rocket sites for materials
and personnel. In 1946 the MVD was responsible for the rounding up of 6000
scientists from the Soviet zone of Germany and taking them and their
dependents to the Soviet Union.2 The political conflicts of the 1930\'s and
World War II left many educated people with the impression that only
communism could combat economic depression and fascism. It was easy for
Soviet agents to recruit men who would later rise to positions of power
with access to sensitive information. \'Atom spies\' were well positioned to
keep the Soviets informed of every American development on the bomb. Of
considerable importance was a man by the name of Klaus Fuchs, a German
communist who fled Hitler\'s purge and whose ability as a nuclear physicist
earned him a place on the Manhattan Project. Fuchs passed information to
the Soviets beginning in 1941, and was not arrested until 1950. Also
passing secrets to the Soviets were Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, executed in
the United States in 1953. The latter two were probably among the first who
believed in nuclear deterrence, whereby neither country would use nuclear
weapons because the other would use his in response, therefore there would
be no ssible winner. It is generally believed that with such scientists as
Andrei Sakharov, the Soviets were capable of working it out for themselves
without the help of intelligence. (better transition) The National Security
Act of 1947 gave birth to the CIA, and in 1949 the CIA Act was formally
passed. "The act exempted the CIA from all Federal laws that required the
disclosure of \'functions, names, official titles, and salaries or number of
personnel employed by the agency\'. The director was awarded staggering
powers, including the right to \'spend money without regard to the
provisions of law and regulations relating to the expenditure of government
funds\'. The act also allowed the director to bring in 100