This essay Herbert Hoover has a total of 1330 words and 8 pages.
Herbert Clark Hoover was the 31st president of the United States.
During his first year in office the Wall Street crash of 1929 occurred. He
was blamed for the resulting collapse of the economy, and his unpopular
policies brought an end to a brilliant career in public office. After the
inauguration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1933, however, Hoover remained
a leading critic of the New Deal and a spokesman for the Republican party.
Born on Aug. 10, 1874, the son of a blacksmith in the Iowa village of
West Branch, Hoover was orphaned at the age of eight and sent to live with
an uncle in Oregon. The uncle became wealthy, enabling Hoover to study
mining engineering at Stanford University; he graduated in 1895. The
influences of his engineering training and his Quaker upbringing were to
shape his subsequent careers.
Hoover began working in California mines as an ordinary laborer, but he
soon obtained a position in Australia directing a new gold-mining venture.
During the next two decades he traveled through much of Asia, Africa, and
Europe as a mining entrepreneur, earning a considerable fortune. At the
outbreak of World War I in August 1914 he was in London.
Hoover, who as a Quaker passionately believed in peace, was appalled by
the human costs of the war, and he determined to devote his life to public
service. He volunteered to direct the exodus of American tourists from
war-torn Europe and then to head (1915-19) the Commission for Relief in
Belgium. This position brought him public attention as the "great
humanitarian," a well-earned reputation that he lost only after the 1929
Wall Street debacle. The commission fed 10,000,000 people during the war
and left funds for Belgian postwar reconstruction.
When the United States entered the war in April 1917, Hoover was called
to Washington to serve as food administrator. This was a special wartime
office, created to encourage American agricultural production and food
conservation and to coordinate a rational distribution of food. When the
war ended in November 1918, President Woodrow Wilson sent Hoover back to
Europe to direct the American Relief Administration, an agency intended to
relieve the suffering in Europe caused by the war\'s destruction.
Hoover\'s public reputation was enormous as a result of his activities
in these offices, and some persons looked upon him as a presidential
candidate in 1920. He had never participated in partisan politics, but he
did declare himself a Republican while refusing to seek the presidency that
year. In 1921, Warren G. Harding appointed Hoover secretary of commerce, a
post he held until he began his own presidential campaign in 1928.
Secretary of Commerce
As secretary of commerce, Hoover made his most important contributions
to public policy. He was so able and active in the administrations of
Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge that observers often referred to him
as "secretary for domestic affairs." Hoover directly confronted a dilemma
central to American values: the conflict between the tradition of
individualism and the impersonalism of large corporations and big cities.
Hoover deeply believed in the traditional worth of the individual, the
value of personal initiative, the rights of self-expression, and the legacy
of freedom of opportunity. These beliefs were deeply rooted in American
society and in Hoover\'s personal Quaker faith.
But Hoover, as an engineer, was also profoundly impressed by the
virtues of science. Rational principles could point the way to
disinterested fairness in public policy, bring about greater efficiency in
the economy and in society, and, if applied dispassionately, cause an end
to the bitter conflicts in an America populated by persons of different
creeds, races, and social classes. In his belief that greater rationality
in public life could be combined with respect for the tradition of
individual rights, Hoover conformed to the mainstream of progressive social
thought in the early 20th century.
As secretary of commerce Hoover was concerned with applying rational
principles in order to end conflict between labor and business. But he was
mostly preoccupied with trying to bring the benefits of cooperative action
to business owners and farmers without destroying individual initiative. To
this end his department encouraged firms to join together in trade
associations and thereby develop and share vital information about costs of
production and distribution and about available markets.
Hoover\'s views and policies were popular in the 1920s. In 1928, after
Coolidge announced that he would not seek reelection, Hoover launched a
successful presidential campaign, easily defeating the Democratic
contender, Al Smith. Hoover expressed the belief that ways had been found
to eliminate the scourges of poverty and that America was entering a future
of peace and
Topics Related to Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover, DudleyWinthrop family, Conservatism in the United States, American Quakers, Lou Henry Hoover, The Hoover Company, Hoover Commission, Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Commission for Relief in Belgium, Herbert Hoover National Historic Site, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum
Essays Related to Herbert Hoover
Depression of the 1930sDepression of the 1930s The economic depression that beset the United States and other countries in the 1930s was unique in its magnitude and its consequences. At the depth of the depression, in 1933, one American worker in every four was out of a job. In other countries unemployment ranged between 15 percent and 25 percent of the labor force. The great industrial slump continued throughout the 1930s, shaking the foundations of Western capitalism and the society based upon it. Economic Aspects P
Herbert HooverHerbertHoover hoo\'-vur} Herbert Clark Hoover was the 31st president of the United States. During his first year in office the Wall Street crash of 1929 occurred. He was blamed for the resulting collapse of the economy, and his unpopular policies brought an end to a brilliant career in public office. After the inauguration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1933, however, Hoover remained a leading critic of the New Deal and a spokesman for the Republican party. Early Life Born on Aug. 10, 1874, th
The 1930ís: The Good Times and The Bad TimesThe 1930ís: The Good Times and The Bad Times The decade of the 1930ís can be characterized in two parts: The Great Depression, and the restoration of the American economy. America had been completely destroyed due to the Stock Market Crash of 1929. It was up to the government and people of the 1930ís to mend Americaís wounds. One man stood up to this challenge, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He promised to fix the American economy, provide jobs, and help the needy. During The Great Depression, the
JapanJapan The occupation of Japan was, from start to finish, an American operation. General Douglans MacArthur, sole supreme commander of the Allied Power was in charge. The Americans had insufficient men to make a military government of Japan possible; so t hey decided to act through the existing Japanese gobernment. General Mac Arthur became, except in name, dictator of Japan. He imposed his will on Japan. Demilitarization was speedily carried out, demobilization of the former imperial forces was
Thomas Woodrow WilsonThomas Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson, twenty-eighth president of the United States, might have suffered from dyslexia. He never could read easily, but developed a strong power of concentration and a near-photographic memory. The outbreak of World War I coincided with the death of Wilson\'s first wife Ellen Axson, who he was passionately devoted to. Seven months after her death his friends introduced him to Edith Bolling Galt, a descendant of the Indian princess Pocahontas, they were marri